Pomoćni glagol “to have” – Auxiliary Verb “to have”

By | 04/05/2014

Pomoćni glagoli služe za tvorbu složenih glagolskih vremena (perfekta, futura itd.)

Pomoćni glagoli su:

be, have, do, shall, will

Glagol “to have” – imati

Have kao pomoćni glagol:

S pomoćnim glagolom have tvore se sljedeći glagolski oblici:

perfekt (I have spoken)
pluskvamperfekt (I had spoken)
infinitiv perfekta (to have spoken)
particip perfekta (to have spoken)
particip perfekta i gerund prošli (having spoken).

Have kao glagol punog značenja:

– Have iza kojeg slijedi infinitiv izražava obavezu. Npr:
They had to leave. (morali su otići)
I have to buy some chocolate for her girl. (moram kupiti čokolade za njezinu djevojčicu)

– U toj se konstrukciji može upitni oblik tvoriti s pomoću do ili inverzijom, a odrični pomoću do ili dodavanjem not, npr:

Did they have to leave?
Had they have to leave?
{ Jesu li morali otići?
They did not have to leave.
They had not to leave.
{ Nisu morali otići.

– Osnovno značenje glagola have kao glagola punog značenja jest posjedovati, imati. Npr:
Her brother has a motor-boat. (njezin brat ima motorni čamac)
The baby has a blue eyes. (djetešce ima plave oči)

– U govornom se jeziku uz have koje znači posjedovati često stavlja got.
I have got znači isto značenje kao i have.
He has got a TV set. (on ima televizor)

Kada have znači posjedovati, ne upotrebljava se u nesvršenim vremenima.

– Have se upotrebljava u nekim stalnim izrazima:
to have breakfast (doručkovati)
to have tea (popiti čaj)
to have a good time (dobro se zabavljati)

Causative have

Have iza kojeg slijedi objekt i particip perfekta označuje da neko drugi vrši radnju rečenice
po želji ili zapovijedi subjekta. Takvo have se u gramatikama obično zove causative have.

Last week I had a new suit made. (prošle sedmice dao sam napraviti novo odijelo)
You must have your invitation cards printed. (morate dati štampati pozivnice).

Iz tih prijevoda vidimo da se takvo have prevodi na naš jezik glagolom ‘dati’.

U ovim rečenicama osobito je važan poredak riječi:

HAVE + OBJEKT + PARTICIP PERFEKTA

Ako izmijenimo poredak riječi, izmijenit ćemo i značenje rečenice:

I have weeded my garden. (oplijevio sam svoj vrt)
I have my garden weeded. (dajem plijeviti vrt)

Simple Present Tense – Prezent

I have – I’ve (ja imam) I haven’t have I?
you have – you’ve you haven’t have you?
he has – he’s he hasn’t has he?

Past Simple Tense – Preterit

I had (ja sam imao) I hadn’t had I?
you had you hadn’t had you?
he had he hadn’t had he?

Present Perfect Tense – Perfekt

I have had (ja sam imao) I have not had have I had?
you have had you have not had have you had?
he has had he has not had has he had?

The Past Perfect Tense – Pluskavamperfekt

I had had (ja bejah imao) I had not had had I had?
you had had you had not had had you had?
he had had he had not had had he had?

Futur Simple – Futur

I shall have (ja ću imati) I shall not have shall I have?
you will have you will not have will you have?
he will have he will not have will he have?

Futur Perfect – Svršeni futur

I shall have had (ja ću imati) I shall not have had shall I have had?
you will have had you will not have had will you have had?
he will have had he will not have had will he have had?

Present Conditional – Pogodbeni način sadašnji

I should have (ja bih imao) I should not have should I have?
you would have you would not have would you have?
he would have he would not have would he have?
Past Conditional – Pogodbeni način prošli
I should have had (bio bih imao) I should not have had should I have had?
you would have had you would not have had would you have had?
he would have had he wuold not have had would he have had?
Imperativ have
Infinitiv prezenta to have
Infinitiv perfekta to have had
Particip prezenta having
Particip perfekta had – having had
Gerund prezenta having
Gerund perfekta having had